Friday 18 November 2022

In Search of Beatrice Garvie (1872-1959) Part 3

Continued from yesterday. Researched and written by guest blogger Fiona Sanderson:

 ‘Finding Dr Garvie’ and reconstructing the photographs.

 For my next visit to the school, I had borrowed some costumes from the local drama club, and sent them ahead on the boat. I arrived to find the children playing a favourite game around the school, which was to hide a thumb-sized cutout of Dr Garvie for the others to find. They were excellent at finding very tricky hiding places! As I joined in, I realised that this was the same game I had been playing since this research project began. 

 Once we had loaded up the kelp barrow with the costumes for the day, we were off along the shore to reconstruct one of Dr Garvie’s pictures. 

Robin directed the photo shoot, including location management, and a bit of kelp pit rebuilding. The day was also made possible by Louis Craigie, who was happy to appear in costume too. And Phoebe made a great job of being Dr Garvie herself. 

It was a perfect day, with lots of the best kinds of learning.

 Sinclair Scott came to talk to us about his early memories of growing up on the island. Here he is with a copy of Dr Garvie’s photo of him as a baby. 

Sinclair Scott with his photo at ten months old, taken by Dr Garvie 

I explained that the films would have been sent away to be developed and then printed, and that this might have taken a while, especially in winter, if the boat was delayed. One of the children commented ‘that means that baby night have waited months to see what he looked like!’ 

So, that’s what’s been happening on the island. Meanwhile, there have been some other exciting developments.

I was continuing to work with Beatrice Thomson, captioning all of the Garvie photographs from North Ronaldsay; more than 500 of them. It’s not always possible to tell who and where the photographs were taken, but with patience and cross referencing, we are getting there. Many interesting stories later, we have now completed the first draft of the captions, and are working on the finished document. 

That kind of close-looking also reveals more and more.

I noticed the pinnie fabrics that the women were wearing. Bright and colourful, perhaps put on especially for the photograph, there was a whole world of pinnies that I hadn’t been aware of. I realised that these garments are often overlooked, although they would have been important as practical work garments, and, through choice of pattern and style, an important means of self expression too.

 Then, one day, I noticed a tiny shadow of a camera, in a group shot that included Beatrice Garvie…. The first clue to the actual camera that she used… Could I somehow identify it? 

 Further, I had come across a tantalising ‘Garvie’ post on an ‘Ancestry’ website… a living Garvie! I sent a message out into the ether, and hoped that this would be a Garvie family member who would want to respond. 

Time passed.

 In a marvellous rush of events, all the detective work began to find its reward. 

‘Strong, forthright, cantankerous’

First, a great niece of Dr Garvie got in touch, and agreed to have a conversation on Zoom. Three generations of them came along! The Zoom screen was a mosaic of Garvie genes. 

They told me they knew very little of their great aunt, other than that she was a doctor, and that they had never met.

 I was delighted that they were so intrigued to hear about her Orkney connections, to hear some of what I had discovered, to learn that she had been a photographer, and to actually see some of her work.

 I described what I had learned about her from Ann Marwick’s peerless sound recordings, and from islanders’ recollections of her; and asked, did she sound like a typical Garvie? ‘Yes’ came the reply from Grace; ‘Strong, forthright, cantankerous, she would have fitted right in!’.

 Spreading the word 

 It began to feel like it was time to spread the word of this story further, and I was unsure of what to do next. I felt really proud of the work I had done, particularly what had happened with the school on the island. But I knew that the quality of the photographs needed greater recognition, and the story of her life did feel too remarkable for it not to be known. And what if, by spreading the word, it might be that other collections of her work beyond North Ronaldsay might appear? 

I first showcased some of the photographs in ‘Holm Sound’, a series of Orkney based online broadcasts. 

Then, there was an opportunity to take part in a podcast series, called ‘Unforgotten Highland Women’. This positioned her alongside a diverse set of very remarkable women. It also gave me some good practice at telling the story so far.

 It felt essential that the Garvie family should be there, as well as the school, to share the story from their own perspectives, and Lucy from the Orkney Archive had also agreed to join in. This podcast will air sometime early in 2023.

 At one point in the podcast, I showed the photo in which Dr Garvie is holding her camera. Sharon Elliott, the twice great niece of Dr. Garvie said, ‘I’ve got a surprise’. 

She brought out a Voigtlander ‘Brilliant’ camera that had belonged to her Great Grandfather.

Sharon reveals a camera from her family’s collection

  There it was. An unmistakable match. Dr Garvie may have used more than one kind of camera in her work, but here was a definite ID of the one she is holding in this picture. 

I was very happy with that outcome, as in months of searching for 1930s cameras online, and despite the help of local photographers, I had got nowhere.

 The Voigtlander ‘Brilliant’ camera was a very popular model in the 1930s. The most basic model had just three settings each for focus, aperture and shutter speed. The ‘Compur’ which is I think the one used by Dr Garvie, is a little more sophisticated, allowing for more successful hand held photography, since the shutter speeds are faster. 

Close-up of Dr Garvie with camera

With Colin’s help, from the Archive, I’ve been learning to use these cameras, and now have three in working condition. I’m looking forward to using them in the next stage of this project. Wouldn’t it be great to get those cameras taking pictures back on North Ronaldsay?

 They had a first outing very recently, when Fenella and Fiona, sisters in the Garvie family, and great nieces of Beatrice, came up to visit Orkney. They met with Beatrice Thomson, the archivists who have been involved in the story so far, and with myself. We spent an afternoon looking through the Dr Garvie photo albums, and then Colin took us all outside to record the visit on the Voigtlander. 

 It felt like a very satisfying completion.

Finally, another very pleasing outcome: An enquiry from Dr. Jenny Brownrigg, exhibition curator at the Glasgow School of Art. She said she was putting together an exhibition of ‘Scottish Women Photographers’, and hoped to come to the Orkney Archive to see the Beatrice Garvie photographs with a view to her inclusion in the exhibition.

 This exhibition is called ‘Glean: Early twentieth century women film makers and photographers’, it takes place at the City Art Centre in Edinburgh, between November 2022 and March 2023. 

 Jenny Brownrigg’s estimation of the quality of Dr Garvie’s photographic work was wonderful to hear. She gave me insights into the strength of her camera work, particularly the capturing of movement, and her noticing of form in her composition. 

She also gave me more of a context to understand the work, given that many of the women photographers of the time would have come from very privileged backgrounds, and had independent means. Dr Garvie was singular in ‘paying her own way’.

 Jenny Brownrigg agreed it was likely that Dr Garvie was an experienced photographer before she came to the island. A clue to this is found in the print marks on the back of her photographs, that show she used a place in Oxford to develop her work.

Print mark on the reverse of the Dr Garvie photographs. 

 This suggests that she may have begun taking photographs when she was working in England. So, it’s probable that she did produce work elsewhere. Perhaps, somewhere, someone who has come across this story, is already dusting off a box of old albums

With thanks to Colin, Lucy, Andrea, Sarah and Vikki at the Archive, to Ellen Pesci who facilitated loans of the medicine chest and camera from the Tankerness House Museum, to Beatrice Thomson, everyone at North Ronaldsay school and to Rebecca Marr for camera loan and ongoing camera advice.


Thursday 17 November 2022

In Search Of Beatrice Garvie (1872-1959) Part 2


Researched and written by guest blogger Fiona Sanderson:

Last year I wrote a first blog for the Archive: ‘In Search of Doctor Garvie’. Since then, that initial biographical research has grown into a much bigger story. 

 I’ve discovered that Beatrice Garvie has family, and made contact with them. I’ve tracked down the kind of camera she used, and found one that’s still in working condition. Together with Beatrice Thomson, an island elder, I’ve worked to catalogue and caption all of the more than 500 photographs that are in the Orkney Archive. I’ve also continued to find creative ways to return her story to North Ronaldsay. 

I feel as if I’ve obtained a much better idea of what Beatrice Garvie was like as a person, as well as establishing a great deal of her biography. 

 As I wondered what to do next, I felt that the answer to that question lay in the ethical way Dr Garvie had worked, with her photographs. That is, to return them to the people who were in them. Taking her story back to the island of North Ronaldsay felt increasingly important. Alongside this, I also wanted to spread the word about the legacy of her work; an archive that may possibly be unique.

 A special birthday May 9th 2022 found me heading for North Ronaldsay with a rucksack filled with a medical case, containing everything an early twentieth century peripatetic medic might have needed, from smelling salts to umbilical snips, to baby weighing scales. I was also carrying an old medium format camera with plenty of film, and a very large birthday cake.

 I had been in touch with Helga Scott, teacher at the school on North Ronaldsay, who had sounded interested in finding out more about Dr. Garvie, and linking it with a school project, on ‘Change’. We had discussed a special event day, a birthday party for Dr Garvie on May 9th, the 150th anniversary of her birth, and I began to think of what I might take along in order to bring her story to life.

 Of course, Dr Garvie’s photographs were a great place to start. Helga had shown the schoolchildren some of Dr Garvie’s island photos, of people at work, of babies that she had delivered, of the bicycle she used to get around the island, and of the bungalow that Dr Garvie had shared with Charlotte Tulloch.

Dr Garvie with her housekeeper Charlotte Tulloch

 Charlotte worked as her housekeeper, and I have been told that they were a couple. Certainly they lived together for the whole 16 years that Beatrice Garvie was the doctor on the island, and I gather that they both left the island, when Dr Garvie retired. 

 Although we don’t need to know the details of their private lives, when I see photographs of them together, I do read companionship there. I also admit to feeling happy that, after many years of struggle in her career, Beatrice Garvie had found a place where she felt contentment.

 Dr Garvie may also have had a sweet tooth! On a previous visit to the island, by chance, I had come across a book she had owned; a recipe book called ‘Sweets and Chocolates’.  For the birthday party, the children had made some sweets; cinder toffee and marshmallows from recipes in the book. 

The book of recipes, found at Trebb, with Dr Garvie’s bookplate alongside.

Birthday tea on May 9th, at the school

  There was a lot of interest in drawing and investigating the contents of the medical chest. The birthday party was a great means of introducing a broad range of learning about life on the island in the 1930s, and the work of the doctor at that time.  

Investigating the equipment in the medical case


Some older islanders had offered the little brass ornaments that Dr Garvie had given them when they were children, for us to see on the day. These were a great subject to photograph with the old camera I had taken along too.

Edie Craigie and Isabella Scott, with one of the brass ornament

 At the end of the day, Helga and I chatted over a cup of tea, with Edie Craigie. Helga said ‘wouldn’t it be great to reconstruct some of those photos with the children’. ‘How can I help?’ I replied. 

To be continued...

Monday 11 July 2022

Transcription: Preserving the Recorded Past. With Call for Information (Lady Burroughs)

 Guest Blogpost by Nela Scholma-Mason

Skull in a basket. Drawing by Nela Scholma-Mason

If you enjoy a suspenseful Gothic short story, you might like Lady Burroughs’ report on the discovery of Taversoe Tuick (GB241/D19/10/9).

Set on the isle of Rousay in 1898, it tells of the chance discovery of a prehistoric grave chamber in a thunderstorm. In the end, the narrator walks home with a skull in her basket.

Above all, this is an excavation report, not a work of fiction.

Eliza D'Oyly Traill Burroughs (1849-1908) (GB241/L3295/4)

The author (and 1st-person narrator) is Eliza D’Oyly Traill Burroughs (née Geddes, 1849-1908; pictured), and the document is mostly known as ‘the journal of Lady Burroughs’.

The manuscript, however, does not form part of a personal diary; it comprises nine loose pages and drawings that are solely focused on the discovery and the ensuing excavation of Taversoe Tuick – which is why it is referred to as a ‘report’ and a ‘manuscript’ here, rather than a ‘journal’.

It is a lively piece, full of riveting questions and theories about prehistory, glimpses of Eliza’s observational sense of humour and her emotional intelligence, as well as dramatic descriptions of the storm-swept island of Rousay.

Eliza’s writing style creates a personal connection between herself and the reader: she makes no secret out of the joy she got from the discovery, recommending excavation to “anyone in search of excitement!” She also gives insightful remarks about the moods of those present (her husband and two workmen) – in addition to providing measurements, detailed site descriptions, and sketches.

The report remained an unpublished manuscript until Diana Reynolds transcribed it for PSAS in 1985 – but even after that, Eliza herself remained a little-known figure in Orkney history, usually overshadowed by the history of her husband, Lt-Gen Sir Frederick W Traill Burroughs, the laird of Rousay and Wyre (see ‘further reading’, below for more information on him).  

I came across the Taversoe Tuick report years ago when I was looking for case studies during research into Orcadian archaeology and folklore (I won’t digress). Having discovered a new favourite author, I began to search for Eliza – Who was she? What else had she written? Who had written about her? – only to find… well, not very much.

Initial online searches did not even reveal her birthdate (9 May 1849).  


Lady Burroughs (Ref: GB241/S18/1)

I soon realised that if I wanted to read more by her, I would have to dig deep for it – and if I wanted to read more about her… I would have to write it myself (spoiler alert: I have!).

Over the years I would find out that Eliza was the first person to bring cinema to the isle of Rousay (in 1901), that she promoted local craftwork and artistic talent, took a deep interest in the welfare of local schoolchildren, knew May Morris, liked the outdoors, enjoyed stargazing, and was partial to tea.

Still – to this day I have not found any private letters or diaries that would provide a clearer idea of her personality and her views (other than her archaeological views). 

In photographs (of which there are many), she has a confident, intelligent expression (her writing style and attention to detail would support this), but photographs are mere moments in time. At present, hers could still do with more context

Back in 2017, my first starting point was the Orkney Library & Archive (OA), Archon code GB241 

Apart from Eliza’s original report (GB241/D19/10/9), many of the relevant sources were 19th-century newspaper clippings (the OA’s D19 papers; I also consulted the British Newspaper Archive ), and while I read these with interest, the warning words of Dr Samuel Johnson (1709 - 1784) resounded in my mind: in his periodical the Rambler (nr. 60, 13 October 1750) , he notes that many writers rely too heavily on newspaper articles to piece together a biography of their subject, when, in fact:

“ (…) more knowledge may be gained of a man's real character, by a short conversation with one of his servants, than from a formal and studied narrative (…)”.


Dr Samuel Johnston (1709-1784), noted biographer (among many other works)
Painting by Joshua Reynolds 

For obvious reasons, this is not something I could do. Eliza, her household staff, and I are separated by more than a century. We have walked the same ground, but not at the same time.

This venture was impossible after all.

Or so I thought!

The OA Sound Archive holds a recorded interview with Alexina Craigie (OSA/TA/149). Alexina Craigie had worked at Trumland House around the turn of the century and was still alive in 1977 (!) when Howie Firth interviewed her for Radio Orkney.

The interview is on a reel-to-reel tape, and I was quite apprehensive the first time I used it. Not daring to press any buttons for fear of breaking things, I listened to the interview in one go once it had been switched on by one of the archivists.

Ye Olde Reel-to-Reel Tape Player

The interview is a treasure trove of anecdotes, memories, and descriptions of Orkney, with focus on Rousay. It contains stories and recollections about Alexina Craigie’s own family and memories that were told to her by her relatives.

The scope of history on the tape easily goes back at least into the early 1800s, if not before that, with tales of press gangs, peat cutting, the development of a postal service in Rousay, hazardous whaling trips, and the kinds of foods that were eaten in Rousay when Alexina was young.

Alexina’s memories of working at Trumland House are a relatively small part of the interview, but the anecdotes she does share have been invaluable for my research, especially as they give an insight into Eliza’s character by someone who knew her personally.

These anecdotes include Eliza wandering about Trumland House looking for company (and tea) while her husband and houseguests are out; and Eliza giving up her seat in a cart between Westness and Trumland, deciding to walk instead, which saved Alexina a 3.5-mile trek while on duty.

In summer 2018, I was back in Orkney and had arranged with the OA to transcribe the interview. My concerns regarding the age and fragility of the tape (which had prevented me from pressing any buttons previously) had turned into a plan to commit the words of the interview to paper (or, to be more precise, to pdf: GB241/OSA-TA-149).

The interview lasts for about 30 minutes and I set aside two days for the transcription. This included listening to the recording various times until I became familiar with the melody and rhythm of Alexina’s voice and her manners of speaking, before writing it up bit-by-bit.

Finally, I listened to the tape several more times, while reading and correcting what I had written up until every word matched (to the best of my understanding).  

At this point, let me emphasise how much help I had from Colin Rendall (Orkney Archive Technician) during those days. His advice was crucial, as I wanted to avoid mistakes out of ignorance, especially when it came to dialect and vernacular ways of phrasing (interesting detour: I learned that there is no such thing as ‘the Orkney dialect’, as every island of the archipelago has their own).

To my understanding, the role of the transcriber is just that: to transcribe every spoken word, not to correct anything – be it dates, place names, historical facts – nor to smooth over any phrasing (although some transcribers choose to omit fill noises; for example, if the speaker says ‘erm’ many times – which Alexina does not).

Of course, even a transcription comes with its own bias (and therefore responsibility!) – simply because it is carried out by a person, who is making decisions throughout the process. This is an important point, but it would need its own discussion.

The (largely) passive part I played as a transcriber was what made the process even more interesting. I was not putting together a polished, reviewed history. Instead, I was recording a private person’s memory and understanding of the time she lived in, and her own life story embedded in that.

Above all, listening to the voice of someone who was alive during the 19th century (!) felt like a rare privilege. Unfortunately, a written transcription does not record the sound of someone’s voice, nor their gestures or facial expressions while they are speaking. These are the first elements to become (apologies in advance…) ‘lost in transcription’.

Alexina Craigie’s voice is clear and strong (she was about a century old at the time of the interview!), her phrasing elegant. The tone of her voice reveals a bright, friendly sense of humour during some anecdotes, while hinting at a profound loyalty to those around her in other parts.

When she begins to talk about Eliza, you can hear how her face lights up with a smile. It is clear from her voice alone that she got along well with her, which adds even more weight and meaning when she speaks affectionately about Eliza:

“Lady Burroughs was… oh my gosh… [inaudible], she was the most humble lady in many ways (…). You couldn’t imagine!”


Alexina Craigie (1879-1980) Photographed in 1975 (GB241/L2238/2)

There were words – sometimes entire phrases – neither Colin nor I were sure about, which I have either marked with ‘inaudible’ or provided two possible options for (not ideal – but I felt this was preferable to putting words into the mouth of the speaker). Hopefully I will be able to fill in those gaps and update the transcription sometime.

I could not have done this transcription without Colin’s help, and I am very grateful not only for his advice and proofreading, but also for all the cheerful banter and coffee. Those two days were a joy.

This is the closest I could ever hope to get to “having a short conversation with one of [Eliza’s] servants” (or at least eavesdropping on one!) as a means of gathering biographical information. I hope Dr Johnson would let me off the hook.

 “There is no Answer from the Unrecorded Past”, Eliza notes while trying to make sense of Taversoe Tuick.

In my case, this applies to ‘answers’ that were once recorded in writing (unlike the prehistoric remains Eliza dealt with) but have become (apologies again…) ‘un-recorded’ by being lost, thrown out or destroyed.

By transcribing and digitising we can delay the loss of people’s life stories and keep them available for another few generations.

I look forward to being back in Kirkwall again soon and visit the Orkney Archive. Maybe I will be able to fill in some of those ‘inaudible’ gaps.  

On a final note: My research into the life of Lady Burroughs is far from complete. I would very much like to hear from you if you know of anything relating to her. Be it an ancestral connection, letter/s, photograph/s, a diary (one can but hope!), or even just a brief anecdote you think you heard somewhere. Nothing is irrelevant!

I have also tried to track down some of her original watercolours, but to little avail so far. Everything – however small, however brief, however anecdotal – is of interest!

You can contact me (Nela) at:

A short film portraying the storm-swept discovery of Taversoe Tuick will be shown at this year's Orkney Storytelling Festival. This film forms part of the Forgotten Stories project.


Further reading:

Nela’s article about Lady Burroughs

Scholma-Mason, N M A (2021), ‘Eliza D’Oyly Traill Burroughs (1849-1908): A Voice from the            Unrecorded Past’ in Proc Soc Antiq Scot 150, 279-299.       

This paper was awarded the R B K Stevenson Award 2021

 Hard copies of this article and Diana Reynolds' article are available to read in the Orkney Room             (Orkney Room Periodicals, 941, PSAS, Volumes 115 and 150)

William Thomson’s biography of Lt-Gen Sir F W Traill Burroughs:

 Thomson, W P L (1981) The Little General and the Rousay Crofters: Crisis and Conflict on       an Orkney Estate. Edinburgh: John Donald.

(A copy of this book is available to read in the Orkney Room 333 Y)

Alexina Craigie's Interview

Howie Firth’s interview with Alexina Craigie (1977) can be found in the Orkney Sound Archive under GB241/OSA/TA/149. 

Nela Scholma-Mason’s transcription (2018) of this interview can be found under: GB241/OSA-TA-149 in the Orkney Archive